[95] Wolf packs are typically settled, and usually leave their accustomed ranges only during severe food shortages. D. renale causes the complete destruction of the kidney's functional tissue and can be fatal if both kidneys are infected. [117], When hunting large gregarious prey, wolves will try to isolate an individual from its group. [36] Territorial fights are among the principal causes of wolf mortality, one study concluding that 14–65% of wolf deaths in Minnesota and the Denali National Park and Preserve were due to other wolves. [151] In Russia, the wolf is regarded as a pest because of its attacks on livestock, and wolf management means controlling their numbers by destroying them throughout the year. The ears are covered in short hairs and project from the fur. Scent marking involves urine, feces, and anal gland scents. The Himalayan wolf clade diverged from other canids 800,000 years ago. [185] The Dena'ina believed wolves were once men and viewed them as brothers. Wolves may be hunted or trapped with a license; around 1,200 wolves are harvested annually. [7], In 1758, the Swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus published in his Systema Naturae the binomial nomenclature. [177] In Chinese astronomy, the wolf represents Sirius as the "blue beast" and the star itself is called the "heavenly wolf". Territory size depends largely on the amount of prey available and the age of the pack's pups. Shooting wolves from aircraft is highly effective, due to increased visibility and direct lines of fire. [117] After chasing and then confronting a large prey animal, the wolf makes use of its 6 cm (2 1⁄2 in) fangs and its powerful masseter muscles to deliver a bite force of 28 kg/cm2 (400 lbf/in2), which is capable of breaking open the skulls of many of its prey animals. [51] Black-coloured wolves in North America acquired their colour from wolf-dog admixture after the first arrival of dogs across the Bering Strait 12,000 to 14,000 years ago. [131] The breeding pair typically monopolizes food to continue producing pups. Isengrim is forever the victim of Reynard's wit and cruelty, often dying at the end of each story. Moose and deer live singly in the summer. [114] Wolves, or even a wolf on its own, will attempt to frighten a herd into panicking and dispersing. [189] In another story, the wolf tricks and eats some rats by pretending to be lame but is foiled by the chief rat. Wolves increase their rate of scent marking when they encounter the marks of wolves from other packs. This is in contrast to young coyotes and foxes, which may begin fighting even before the onset of play behaviour. The mitochondrial DNA of 27 wolves from the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau was compared in 2004. [116], The most common point of wolf attacks on moose is the upper hind legs. It travels in nuclear families consisting of a mated pair accompanied by their offspring. [61], Viral diseases carried by wolves include: rabies, canine distemper, canine parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis, papillomatosis, and canine coronavirus. [227], This article is about the wolf within the species Canis lupus. [2], In Canada, 50,000–60,000 wolves live in 80% of their historical range, making Canada an important stronghold for the species. [135] In wolves, the incubation period is eight to 21 days, and results in the host becoming agitated, deserting its pack, and travelling up to 80 km (50 mi) a day, thus increasing the risk of infecting other wolves. In the wild, surplus killing occurs primarily during late winter or spring, when snow is unusually deep (thus impeding the movements of prey)[129] or during the denning period, when den bound wolves require a ready supply of meat. Wolves can spread them to dogs, which in turn can carry the parasites to humans. Such instances are common with domestic animals, but rare with wild prey. Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June–August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas (for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking) increase. [120] On bare paths, a wolf can quickly achieve speeds of 50–60 km/h (31–37 mph). [45], In cold climates, the wolf can reduce the flow of blood near its skin to conserve body heat. [211] Wolves mainly attack livestock when the animals are grazing, though they occasionally break into fenced enclosures. Apart from those wolves which are pure white or black, these tones vary little across geographical areas, although the patterns of these colours vary between individuals. The historical use of shepherd dogs across Eurasia has been effective against wolf predation,[214][218] especially when confining sheep in the presence of several livestock guardian dogs. While adult wolves tend not to show any clinical signs, it can severely weaken the pups of infected females. [36], Endoparasites known to infect wolves include: protozoans and helminths (flukes, tapeworms, roundworms and thorny-headed worms). The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf or western wolf, is a canine native to the wilderness and remote areas of Eurasia and North America. [214], The fear of wolves has been pervasive in many societies, though humans are not part of the wolf's natural prey. Wolves may display unusually bold behaviour when attacking dogs accompanied by people, sometimes ignoring nearby humans. The wolf depends on wild species, and if these are not readily available, as in Asia, the wolf is more reliant on domestic species. The wolf leaps at its quarry and tears at it. The Iberian wolf was first recognised as a distinct subspecies (Canis lupus signatus) in … Wozencraft included hallstromi—the New Guinea singing dog—as a taxonomic synonym for the dingo. Sometimes hunting large prey occurs during the day. 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